who invented feminist film theory

In 2014, Dodson worked with women to discover their sexual desires through masturbation. [17] The matrixial gaze offers the female the position of a subject, not of an object, of the gaze, while deconstructing the structure of the subject itself, and offers border-time, border-space and a possibility for compassion and witnessing. The relationship of feminist film theory to feminist media and cultural studies is outlined, as is the relationship between developments in feminist film theory and feminist film making. [11] While popular feminist criticism is not in the business of providing in-depth readings … Sign in or become a patron today! 2. A key idea of feminist film theory, the concept of the male gaze was introduced by scholar and filmmaker Laura Mulvey in her now famous 1975 essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. [12] Her concept, from her book, The Matrixial Gaze,[13] has established a feminine gaze and has articulated its differences from the phallic gaze and its relation to feminine as well as maternal specificities and potentialities of "coemergence", offering a critique of Sigmund Freud's and Jacques Lacan's psychoanalysis, is extensively used in analysis of films,[14][15] by female directors, like Chantal Akerman,[16] as well as by male directors, like Pedro Almodovar. Feminist Film Theory: A Reader edited by Sue Thornham. This inequality enforces the ancient and outdated idea of “men do the looking, and women are to be looked at.”. It is manifest in a variety of disciplines such as feminist geography, feminist history and feminist literary criticism. In addition, she believes that this way of watching film is never alternated so that the men are in fact the ones who are being viewed in this manner. Learn more about feminism. [21], As of recent years many believe feminist film theory to be a fading area of feminism with the massive amount of coverage currently around media studies and theory. It is best to approach this subject, then, by situating it in relation to other fields, including feminist film theory, film theory in general, philosophical work on film, and feminist aesthetics. Choose from 500 different sets of feminist film theory flashcards on Quizlet. Feminist film theory mostly began in two places. From Tarantino to Welles. However, Rosen and Haskell argue that these images are still mediated by the same factors as traditional film, such as the "moving camera, composition, editing, lighting, and all varieties of sound." However, as the scholar Elizabeth Wright pointed out, “none of these French feminists align themselves with the … [19] Scholars in recent years have also turned their attention towards women in the silent film industry and their erasure from the history of those films and women's bodies and how they are portrayed in the films. “In the Name of Feminist Film Criticism. "New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. In the 1990s feminist ilm theory moved away from Feminist ilm theory came into being in the a binary understanding of sexual diference early 1970s with the aim of … This degrading scene is also followed with a variety of other camera angles and shots which are clearly only included in the movie for sexual gratification targeted towards the heterosexual male. The traditional interpretation of this theory is based on the common ideology of feminism within the Communication world. Feminist theory emerged from these feminist movements. [20][21] Jane Gaines's Women's Film Pioneer Project (WFPP), a database of women who worked in the silent-era film industry, has been cited as a major achievement in recognizing pioneering women in the field of silent and non-silent film by scholars such as Rachel Schaff. "Visual Pleasure" is one of the first major essays that helped shift the orientation of film theory towards a psychoanalytic framework. History. Feminist Film Theory, generally is about theoretical film criticism that arises from feminist politics and theories governed by the second wave feminism rooted from sociological theories concentrated on the how the public scrutinizes how women delivers the attitudes, scenarios, and characters given to them to portray in a particular film in a television or cinema screens. One film which stands out when considering this theory is Michael Bay‘s Transformers franchise. Thus, the film theories set out to analyze the manner in which a great number of women are portrayed in the various films and how it relates to a broader historical context. So then, feminist film theory becomes a reason to hate and disavow movies if you’re a feminist. While Lola Young argues that filmmakers of all races fail to break away from the use to tired stereotypes when depicting black women. Increased focus has been given to, "disparate feminisms, nationalisms, and media in various locations and across class, racial, and ethnic groups throughout the world". Feminist Film Theory 101: Carol J. Clover’s “The Final Girl” Skip to entry content As it’s Halloween this month, it only seems apporiate for this month’s “Feminist Film Theory 101” to focus on Carol J.Clover’s “ Men, Women, and Chain Saws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film .” and the “Final Girl”. The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and women's studies in the 1960s and 1970s. For Mulvey, it is the presence of the female that defines the patriarchal order of society as well as the male psychology of thought. A key idea of feminist film theory, the concept of the male gaze was introduced by scholar and filmmaker Laura Mulvey in her now famous 1975 essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Feminist film theory is a theoretical film criticism derived from feminist politics and feminist theory influenced by Second Wave Feminism and brought about around the 1970s in the United States. Not Funny. Whilst the Male Gaze can be applied to many obvious films such as Transformers, there are some films that people might not even consider as sexist and misogynistic, such as the movies that feature everyone’s beloved Disney princesses: Beauty and the Beast,Aladdin, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella et cetera. The theory focused on is the exploration of feminist theory developed by Mary Wollstonecraft in the 1790’s. As technologies have progressed, contemporary film theory now looks at where and how we encounter … It infers that men hold the answer and are the root to women’s happiness. Janet Bergstrom's article “Enunciation and Sexual Difference” (1979) uses Sigmund Freud's ideas of bisexual responses, arguing that women are capable of identifying with male characters and men with women characters, either successively or simultaneously. The growing female presence in the film industry was seen as a positive step toward realizing this goal, by drawing attention to feminist issues and putting forth an alternative, true-to-life view of women. While Laura Mulvey's paper has a particular place in the feminist film theory, it is important to note that her ideas regarding ways of watching the cinema (from the voyeuristic element to the feelings of identification) are important to some feminist film theorists in terms of defining spectatorship from the psychoanalytical viewpoint. Includes readings from Laura Mulvey, Jacqueline Rose, Mary Ann Doane, Tania Modleski, Annette Kuhn, Jackie Stacey, Elizabeth Cowey, Linda Williams, bell hooks, Teresa de Lauretis. The Male Gaze theory, in a nutshell, is where women in the media are viewed from the eyes of a heterosexual man, and that these women are represented as passive objects of male desire. Analysis generally focused on the meaning within a film's text and the way in which the text constructs a viewing subject. The female protagonists are only happy once they have fallen in love with a man, suggesting to the demographic of Disney’s audience, children and in particular young girls, that they will only be happy when they have fallen in love. [23]:28 She asserts: "In their traditional exhibitionist role women are simultaneously looked at and displayed, with their appearance coded for strong visual and erotic impact so that they can be said to connote to-be-looked-at-ness,"[23]:28 and as a result contends that in film a woman is the "bearer of meaning, not maker of meaning. Karen Hollinger provides an accessible overview of women’s representation and involvement in film, complemented by analyses of key texts that illustrate major topics in the field. Every female Disney protagonist seems to follow a specific template, continuously made to be extremely thin and put dresses, and with the majority of these characters being white women, it can also make children question the worth and societal view of their race. The roots of feminist film theory.Started as a social movement.Early feminist theory and criticism was … Firstly, these movies have a huge difference in the male/female character ratio, instantly making it an unrepresentative movie as it doesn’t depict 50% of its audience. Her theories are influenced by the likes of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan (by using their ideologies as “political weapons”) whilst also including psychoanalysis and feminism in her works. Feminist theory has been foundational to the establishment and development of film studies as a discipline. Feminist Cinema and Film Theor y. British feminist film theorist Laura Mulvey, is famous for her work and is credited with coining the term ‘male gaze’. feminist film theory -andthat image has often been cited, rightly, by feminists, as one of sadism and misogyny. This third perspective allows the male audience to take the female character as his own personal sex object because he can relate himself, through looking, to the male character in the film. [23]:28, In the paper, Mulvey calls for a destruction of modern film structure as the only way to free women from their sexual objectification in film. With this, it’s no doubt that these men have a sense of power over everything, since they are in charge. "Women’s Cinema as Counter Cinema.". Stanford, CA: Stanford … Partially this is because people tend to incorporate the things they like into their own identities. Marxist Theory on Films is one of the most archaic frame of cinematic hypothesis. [8], Beginning in the early 1980s feminist film theory began to look at film through a more intersectional lens. The first is the perspective of the male character and how he perceives the female character. Feminist film theory makes gender its exploratory focus and it has emerged to find a place for women in films; they were frustrated with how feminist studies ignore critiques and works of media, particularly films. This gave rise to a contradiction: whereas feminist film theorists scrupulously analyzed the systematic oppression of the female subject in film, contributions to film history celebrated the strengths of … They believe that conscious calculation cannot fully explain the production and reproduction of patriarchy. The 1990s brought the digital revolution. For example, in the first movie, Megan Fox plays Sam Witwicky’s (Shia LaBeouf) love interest, and who can forget that memorable scene where Fox is in a tight, low-cut top bent over a car engine? [18], Recently, scholars have expanded their work to include analysis of television and digital media. Examples Of Film Criticism In Film 1003 Words | 5 Pages. Typical examples of the male gaze include medium close-up shots of women from over a man’s shoulder, shots that pan and fixate on a woman’s body, and scenes that frequently occur which show a man actively observing a passive woman. Feminist film theory however is often universalizing, and it makes use of complex language and alienating categories which deny women's experiences as active spectators enjoying films or reading them critically. Rest in Peace, Agnes Varda. Mulvey is predominantly known for her theory regarding sexual objectification on women in the media, more commonly known as The Male Gaze” theory. In 1929 Salvador Dali released a film called Un Chein Andalou, which is an abstract short film that portrays a perfect example of this. All the women Bay casts in this franchise are sexualised in some way, and it has no relevance to the story line, or as Mulvey would put it: it is just to please the heterosexual male, rendering it a movie with touches of irrelevant objectification and misogyny. One scene in the film, a man is found dissecting the iris of a young woman’s eye, which infers this idea of female sight not being central, and that men are not only the audience, but also in control of the action, the camera, the direction, the writing, et cetera, therefore completely running the show, dominating the entirety of the narrative and how it is depicted. I don’t think this is a bad thing – I do it too. Page 7-8. The Male Gaze suggests that the female viewer must experience the narrative secondarily, by identification with the male. [edit] Art history Linda Nochlin[40]and Griselda Pollock[41][42] are prominent art historians writing on contemporary and modern artists and articulating Art history from a feminist … Mulvey also asserts that the dominance men embody is only so because women exist, as without a woman for comparison, a man and his supremacy as the controller of visual pleasure are insignificant. 4 – 1960-1980: New Wave, How to Analyse Movies #8: Putting It Into Practice, How to Analyse Movies #7: Iconography & Realisticness, How to Analyse Movies #5: Lighting, Sound & Score, MPAA, Studios Fund 12-Step Programs For Women Directors (PARODY), Weinstein Scandal Should Affect The Outcome Of The EEOC Hollywood Probe (THR Guest Column), The EEOC Gender Probe: I Don’t Regret Starting the Fight, Women Directors & The Farce of Networking Programs, TEENAGE BOUNTY HUNTERS: A Delightful First Season Shot Down by Netflix, HISTORY OF SWEAR WORDS: Not Your Typical History Lesson, RUPAUL’S DRAG RACE S13E2 “Condragulations”: You’re A Winner, Baby! [26] Initially, the attempt to show "real" women was praised, eventually critics such as Eileen McGarry claimed that the "real" women being shown on screen were still just contrived depictions. Overall, it is clear that Mulvey‘s theory can be applied to a vast amount of films, for example Spring Breakers(2012), the Lara Croftmovies (2001-2003), The Avengers(2012) and some less obvious movies, such as Aladdin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). “Introduction: Recent Approaches to Film Feminisms.”, Johnston, Claire. It also examined how the process of cinematic production affects how women are represented and reinforces sexism. Feminism film theory 1. With the advancements in film throughout the years feminist film theory has developed and changed to analyse the current ways of film and also go … For further reading check out Laura Mulvey's essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. [9], From 1985 onward the Matrixial theory of artist and psychoanalyst Bracha L. Ettinger[10] revolutionized feminist film theory. [37][38] Feminist film theory of the last twenty years is heavily influenced by the general transformation in the field of aesthetics, ncluding the new options of articulating the gaze, offered by psychoanalytical French feminism,[39]. April 2016 DOI: 10.1002/9781118663219.wbegss148 CITATIONS 11 READS 12,390 1 author: Some o f the authors of this public ation are also w orking on these r elated projects: Crafting Wearables: on Wearable Technolog y in Fashion Vie w project Book: And The Mirr or Cracked. From the feminist perspective, this theory can be viewed in three ways: How men look at women, how women look at themselves and finally, how women look at other women. Partially this is because people tend to incorporate the things they like into their own identities. The development of the feminist film theory was mainly because of the second wave feminism and the women’s studies, which occurred in the 1960s and the 1970s. 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